Why you should consider how you lift things.
Simply because at least 93 million working days are lost each year through back pain and there also 500,000 cases of back illness in the same period. Thirty seven per cent of all adults suffer with back pain the highest incident being in the 16-44 age group.
Research shows that lifting, dragging and the handling of heavy loads is likely to increase the risk to your spine. You should therefore, look after your back and reduce the risks.
The purpose of these notes.
This information has been produced to help you minimise the risks involved when moving objects either in the work place or at home.
Lifting at work or at home.
Whilst at work your employer has a continuing duty to help you avoid hazardous lifting as far as it is reasonable to do so. Your employer also has a responsibility to assess those lifting operations which cannot be avoided with a view of reducing the risks as far as is reasonably possible. When you are involved in daily tasks such as home, gardening, sport or hobbies, you should always consider how you lift anything.
What to consider.
Firstly it is helpful to consider all the lifting tasks you might undertake during the average day. From picking up the milk in the morning, lifting the groceries from the back of the car, moving a pile of bricks or pulling out that stubborn tree root. Very often these are the risks which we take for granted and there may be better ways of doing some of them.
The following checklist has been put together from the framework of the Government Guidelines on lifting and manual handling but simplified for your ease. Use it to analyse tasks in your daily life which you think are likely to cause problems:-
Consider each particular task.
The closer to your body you hold or move a load the less there will be to your back and the easier it will be to control whatever you are lifting. For example, a load held at arms length puts far more stress on the back than one held close to your body. (Figures 1 & 2)
The more stable you are the less likely you are to let the load suddenly slip or fall. Try to have your feet flat on the floor, shoulder width apart and stand as upright as possible.
If this involves reaching upwards, stooping and/or twisting the stress on your back will increase.
Try avoid lifting heavy objects above your head, particularly from the floor or above waist level. (fig 3). If you have to then it may need a change of grip which can increase risk.
If the load is carried for more than 10m the risk to your back is greater than lifting or lowering.
Try to avoid pushing or pulling, either above shoulder or below mid-thigh height, and make sure you are stable. (fig 4)
Try to ensure the load will not shift making you unbalanced increasing the stress on your body.
Prolonged lifts cause risk through fatigue as does frequent lifting.
Frequent rests are important with demanding jobs, particularly those involving prolonged postures or work where there is no variety in the rate of process.
Handling loads whilst sitting causes particular difficulties because use of the powerful leg muscles are not possible and it is difficult to move the load without bending.
When lifting as a team, the team should lift less than the sum of the individuals capabilities. Emphasis should be placed on an understanding of how the load is to be lifted the ground surface etc.
Consider the nature of the load
Particularly the weight, ease of movement, shape, size and rigidity. All of these factors will influence the amount of effort you have to out into lifting in addition to the stress on your spine.
Loads greater than 75cm in height, depth or width, increase risk or injury.
Bulk loads can interfere with your visibility and unwieldy loads can present difficulties with balance and they or you may hit obstructions.
Loads which are difficult to grasp require more strength, particularly if wet, greasy or slippery. Correctly placed handles or reasonable size will make it easier.
If the contents are likely to move then the risk is increased. This includes the shape and texture of the load and if it is hot or cold.
Always consider the working environment
For example, is there sufficient space to adapt the necessary posture so the task is not awkward?
Is the surface you are standing on slippery, uneven, mobile or dirty?
Are there steps or a variation in the surface? A ladder can pose difficulties grasp it well in a balanced position.
Extremes of temperature or humidity may mean your muscles are cold particularly in winter. Your hands may be slippery in hot weather.
Is there sufficient light? Poor visibility will increase your chances of making a mistake when grasping the load or moving it.
What about your own ability?
Now that you have looked at the task, load and environment you should consider your own ability in relations to these factors. Is the job one which could be achieved by most reasonably fit people?
How do you compare in terms of age, general health, any previous spinal problems or your weight for example?
Do you have any current health problems, have a cold or taking medication? Do you feel well enough to carry out the task?
Is this a task which you are familiar with and feel confident to do and is there anything else you feel you should know before attempting to go any further?
You may find that assessing your own capability is difficult, especially if you have suffered from spinal problems. It is part of an Osteopaths job to assess your capability in relation to your employment and lifestyle. Please ask the Osteopath for advice if you need further help.
Reducing the Risk
Firstly, do you need to lift the object in the first place? Perhaps mechanical equipment could be utilised to avoid you having to do the lifting.
Secondly, if the lifting has to be done, make changes in the areas of task, environment and your capability, to reduce the stress as much as possible.
A. The Task
- Changes in the layout of the task. For example, better storage positions.
- Using the body more efficiently to reduce stooping and twisting.
- Reduce the load.
- Stand closer to the load (figures 5 and 6).
- Remove any objects in the way.
- Use your legs rather than bending your back.
- Improve the work routine to ensure the task is not prolonged or repetitive organising breaks to combat the fatigue.
- As a guide, reduce the weight by 30% if the operation is twice a minute, by 50% if five times per minute and 80% if twelve times per minute.
- Ask someone to help you.
- Use the right chair for seated tasks.
B. The Load
- Make it lighter, smaller or easier to manage.
- Make it easier to grasp, hand-holds, size and positioning
- Increase the stability of the load.
C. The Working Environment
- Clear the space of obstructions and ensure the area is as clean and as level as possible.
- Avoid different levels and slopes.
- Avoid working outside in extreme weather conditions.
- Ensure there is plenty of lighting.
D. Individual Capability
- Be aware of any weaknesses and work within them. For example, if you are pregnant, have just returned after an illness or injury etc.
- Training in the way to lift things will reduce the risk of injury and will teach you to devise various ways of avoiding these injuries by applying good handling techniques.
The role of the Osteopath
During the course of an examination and treatment it is usual for the Osteopath to assess the way in which your body works, identify mechanical strengths and weaknesses which are particular to you. This will enable the Osteopath to identify particular movements and positions which will put your body at most risk of injury.
By discussing the nature of your job and lifestyle with you in detail, the Osteopath will be able to determine which situations in your life will be most likely to cause injury and devise ways of eliminating those risks as much as possible.
You may have noticed that the system used by Andrew Gilmour and Associates is the same as the one suggested for self-help in this leaflet. The only different being that the level of his/her knowledge and experience will help you to explore the problems and solutions in greater depth. If necessary, treatment can be given and exercises prescribed.
Task Analysis, Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction are respected methods used in the field of health and safety and ergonomics to reduce injury and suffering in the workplace. The same techniques used informally can improve the quality of life for patients in all, aspects of their life.
For further advice contact Andrew Gilmour and Associates - 01394 387818